AICAR is a synthetic peptide analogue of adenosine mono-phosphate (AMP), a molecule involved in cellular energy production1. AICAR has been found to be capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity2, which plays a significant role in stimulating synthesis of nucleotides and the enhanced production of ATP3 – the energy currency of all living organisms. By inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase enzymes4, AICAR acts to inhibit catabolic activity and programmed cell death (apoptosis), while acting to enhance anabolic activity, thereby boosting endurance and energy efficiency in muscle cells.
Through the stimulation of ATP-based energy production, AICAR also has an effect on cellular metabolism5, promoting the depletion of fat stores and, if administrated regularly in animal trials, overall weight loss.
AICAR has been researched extensively as an agent to protect against cardiac ischemia6, a condition where blood flow and oxygen deliver to heart tissue is insufficient, and if left untreated, could lead to heart attack. AICAR acts as a booster of oxygen recruitment7, allowing an increased blood-oxygen level to be achieved, thereby enhancing recovery from cardiac ischemia. This enhanced oxygen efficiency has also been demonstrated to enhance the cardiovascular endurance capacity of animal subjects8.
Synonyms: AICA-Ribonucleotide; AICA Riboside; Acadesine; ZMP; 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide
(1) Zhou, G., Myers, R., Li, Y., Chen, Y., Shen, X., Fenyk-Melody, J., ... & Moller, D. E. (2001). Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action. Journal of clinical investigation, 108(8), 1167.
(2) Hardie, D. G. (2003). Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status. Endocrinology, 144(12), 5179-5183.
(3) Wang, W., Yang, X., de Silanes, I. L., Carling, D., & Gorospe, M. (2003). Increased AMP: ATP ratio and AMP-activated protein kinase activity during cellular senescence linked to reduced HuR function. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278(29), 27016-27023.
(4) Gadalla, A. E., Pearson, T., Currie, A. J., Dale, N., Hawley, S. A., Sheehan, M., & Frenguelli, B. G. (2004). AICA riboside both activates AMP‐activated protein kinase and competes with adenosine for the nucleoside transporter in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Journal of neurochemistry, 88(5), 1272-1282.
(5) Guigas, B., Taleux, N., Foretz, M., Detaille, D., Andreelli, F., Viollet, B., & Hue, L. (2007). AMP-activated protein kinase-independent inhibition of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by AICA riboside. Biochem. J, 404, 499-507.
(6) Gruber, H. E., Hoffer, M. E., McAllister, D. R., Laikind, P. K., Lane, T. A., Schmid-Schoenbein, G. W., & Engler, R. L. (1989). Increased adenosine concentration in blood from ischemic myocardium by AICA riboside. Effects on flow, granulocytes, and injury. Circulation, 80(5), 1400-1411.
(7) Bolling, S. F., Groh, M. A., Mattson, A. M., Grinage, R. A., & Gallagher, K. P. (1992). Acadesine (AICA-riboside) improves postischemic cardiac recovery.The Annals of thoracic surgery, 54(1), 93-98.
(8) Durante, P. E., Mustard, K. J., Park, S. H., Winder, W. W., & Hardie, D. G. (2002). Effects of endurance training on activity and expression of AMP-activated protein kinase isoforms in rat muscles. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(1), E178-E186.
|Molar Mass||338.21 g/mol|
|Specificity||AICAR specifically activates AMPK, which acts on adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase enzymes, among other enzymes.|
|Physical Appearance||Fine White Lyophilized Powder|
|Solubility||100 μg/mL sterile diluent (distilled de-ionized water)|
|Stability||Lyophilized protein is to be stored at -20°C. It is recommended to aliquot the reconstituted (dissolved) protein into several discrete vials in order to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4°C.|