Activin Receptor Type 2B or ACV2RB is a 368 amino acid fragment of the larger ActRIIb-hFc recombinant protein1. This ActRIIB receptor fragment is naturally encoded by the ACV2RB gene2, produced in vivo, and researchers have been able to isolate it to develop a fusion protein with a portion of human antibody.
This novel synthetic protein (or recombinant protein) was developed in order to create a version of ActRIIB that is able to circulate systemically without hindrance, while actively stimulating myocyte activity3. Researchers have been interested in developing agents that increase natural myocyte activity, or agents acting to block proteins like myostatin that limit myocyte activity, because of their utility in encouraging growth and muscle development4.
ACV2RB has been extensively researched as an agent to combat specific types of muscular dystrophy5. Through its action as a myocyte stimulator, ACV2RB allowed animal test subjects with muscular dystrophy to achieve much improved maintenance of muscle growth and development, even in the absence of important, naturally occurring proteins that usually guide this action. By allowing the overproduction of muscle cells, ACV2RB led to a developed musculature in test subjects, rather than the muscle wasting and breakdown typical in subjects having muscular dystrophy6.
ACV2RB belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of signalling proteins. TGF-beta proteins are active in controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation, both important aspects of protecting the body from cancers, heart disease, and range of autoimmune diseases7. In animal studies, ACV2RB has also been found to improve subjects’ ability to metabolize glucose, thereby reducing insulin sensitivity8.
Synonyms: ACE-031; ActRIIb-hFc; activin receptor type IIB; activin receptor type 2B; human immunoglobulin Fc region construct; MGC116908
(1) Thompson, T. B., Woodruff, T. K., & Jardetzky, T. S. (2003). Structures of an ActRIIB: activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF‐β ligand: receptor interactions. The EMBO journal, 22(7), 1555-1566.
(2) Feng, Z. M., Madigan, M. B., & Chen, C. L. (1993). Expression of type II activin receptor genes in the male and female reproductive tissues of the rat. Endocrinology, 132(6), 2593-2600.
(3) Jones, S. W., Hill, R. J., Krasney, P. A., O’CONNER, B. A. R. B. A. R. A., Peirce, N., & Greenhaff, P. L. (2004). Disuse atrophy and exercise rehabilitation in humans profoundly affects the expression of genes associated with the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The FASEB journal, 18(9), 1025-1027.
(4) Black, B. L., & Olson, E. N. (1998). Transcriptional control of muscle development by myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) proteins. Annual review of cell and developmental biology, 14(1), 167-196.
(5) Amthor, H., & MH Hoogaars, W. (2012). Interference with myostatin/ActRIIB signaling as a therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Current gene therapy, 12(3), 245-259.
(6) Relizani, K., Mouisel, E., Giannesini, B., Hourdé, C., Patel, K., Gonzalez, S. M., & Amthor, H. (2014). Blockade of ActRIIB signaling triggers muscle fatigability and metabolic myopathy. Molecular Therapy, 22(8), 1423-1433.
(7) Santibanez, J. F., Quintanilla, M., & Bernabeu, C. (2011). TGF-beta/TGF-beta receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Clinical science, 121(6), 233-251.
(8) Akpan, I., Goncalves, M. D., Dhir, R., Yin, X., Pistilli, E. E., Bogdanovich, S., & Ahima, R. S. (2009). The effects of a soluble activin type IIB receptor on obesity and insulin sensitivity. International journal of obesity, 33(11), 1265-1273.
|Molar Mass||40.5 kDa|
|Specificity||ACV2RB was developed to be identical to the amino acid sequences of the human ActRIIb receptor and immunoglobulin Fc region protein, and therefore shows an affinity for activin finger regions in the extracellular matrix1.|
|Physical Appearance||Fine White Lyophilized Powder|
|Solubility||100 μg/mL sterile diluent (distilled de-ionized water)|
|Stability||Lyophilized protein is to be stored at -20°C. It is recommended to aliquot the reconstituted (dissolved) protein into several discrete vials in order to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4°C.|