Epithalon is a synthetic peptide made up of 4 amino acid residues that is active in regulating the cell cycle1. Epithalon is a pineal hormone that acts specifically on a naturally occurring enzyme called telomerase, which is used to maintain the length and integrity of important chromosomal terminus elements called telomeres2. By providing elements to renew telomeres and through its ‘proofreading’ functionality (i.e. checking that the telomeres were replaced in the correct order), Epithalon ensures that aging cells maintain their function and avoid programmed cell death (apoptosis) using the machinery of telomerase enzymes3.
Epithalon has been shown to modify telomerase activity in such a way that extra DNA base pairs are added to the telomeric ends of chromosomes4, thereby extending the lifetime of the wide variety of tissues and cells that these chromosomes are responsible for maintaining. Since telomeres are the genetic elements that determine when cells are meant to die, they act as central players in the process of aging. Epithalon, therefore, works to combat the effects of aging on the body and has been shown to restore tissue and organ function5.
Defense Against Age-Related Pathology
Animal tests have shown that through regular dosing of Epithalon, cellular maintenance of healthy function (homeostasis) could be restored in aging subjects. In several robust trials, a marked decrease in the incidence of acute respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension disease, pulmonary fibrosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, Alzeimer’s disease, deforming osteoarthrosis, and osteoporosis was observed as compared to control animals6. These bioregulators even demonstrated a significant effect on mortality, increasing mean and maximum life expectancies of aging test subjects, likely as a result of avoiding age-related pathologies7.
Synonyms: Epitalon; Epithalamin; Epithalon Tetra Peptide
(1) Khavinson, V., Shataeva, L., & Chernova, A. (2005). DNA double-helix binds regulatory peptides similarly to transcription factors.Neuroendocrinology Letters, 26(3), 237-241.
(2) Counter, C. M., Avilion, A. A., LeFeuvre, C. E., Stewart, N. G., Greider, C. W., Harley, C. B., & Bacchetti, S. (1992). Telomere shortening associated with chromosome instability is arrested in immortal cells which express telomerase activity. The EMBO journal, 11(5), 1921.
(3) Khavinson, V. K., Bondarev, I. E., & Butyugov, A. A. (2003). Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 135(6), 590-592.
(4) Gao, W. J., Wang, Y. L., & Tong, S. L. (2007). Retarding the cellular senescence by Epithalon and changes of telomere length and telomerase activity in the retarding process. Journal of Chongqing College of Education, 6, 002.
(5) Anisimov, V. N., Khavinson, V. K., Popovich, I. G., Zabezhinski, M. A., Alimova, I. N., Rosenfeld, S. V., & Yashin, A. I. (2003). Effect of Epitalon on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female Swiss-derived SHR mice. Biogerontology, 4(4), 193-202.
(6) Anisimov, Vladimir N., and Vladimir Kh Khavinson. "Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects." Biogerontology 11.2 (2010): 139-149.
(7) Khavinson, V. K. (2014). Peptides, genome, aging. Advances in Gerontology, 4(4), 337-345.
|Molar Mass||390.35 g/mol|
|Specificity||Epithalon has a strong affinity for telomerase, which then acts specifically on chromosomal telomere regions.|
|Physical Appearance||Fine White Lyophilized Powder|
|Solubility||100 μg/mL sterile diluent (distilled de-ionized water)|
|Stability||Lyophilized protein is to be stored at -20°C. It is recommended to aliquot the reconstituted (dissolved) protein into several discrete vials in order to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4°C.|